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By the mid-7th century, English and Irish missionaries set out to convert the Frisians.

Near the fort, settlements would grow housing artisans, traders and soldiers' wives and children.Around 275 the Romans could no longer maintain the northern border and Utrecht was abandoned. Utrecht is first spoken of again several centuries after the Romans left.Under the influence of the growing realms of the Franks, during Dagobert I's reign in the 7th century, a church was built within the walls of the Roman fortress.From then on Utrecht became one of the most influential seats of power for the Roman Catholic Church in the Netherlands.The archbishops of Utrecht were based at the uneasy northern border of the Carolingian Empire.It lost the status of prince-bishopric but remains the main religious centre in the country.

Utrecht was the most important city in the Netherlands until the Dutch Golden Age, when it was surpassed by Amsterdam as the country's cultural centre and most populous city.

A series of such fortresses was built after the Roman emperor Claudius decided the empire should not expand north.

To consolidate the border, the Limes Germanicus defense line was constructed along the main branch of the river Rhine, which at that time flowed through a more northern bed compared to today (what is now the Kromme Rijn).

The Veluwe region was seized by Guelders, but large areas in the modern province of Overijssel remained as the Oversticht.

Several churches and monasteries were built inside, or close to, the city of Utrecht.

remnants of which are still to be found below the buildings around Dom Square.